Goreme Open Air Museum
Goreme open-air museum located to the east of Goreme Town , it is a rock settlement .In Goreme from A.D. 4. until the 13th century intensively monastic life has been lived. Almost all in rock blocks churches, chapels, dining halls and seating places are.
The churches are painted in two types of techniques. The first is a painting made by directly smoothing the surface of the rock, the rock on the latter made the secco (tempera) and painting with fresco techniques. The themes in the church are taken from the Bible and the life of Christ.
There are ;girls and boys Monastery, St. Basil’s Church, the Apple Church, St. Barbara Church, Snake Church, Church Dark, carikli Church and Buckle Church in Goreme Open Air Museum .
Priestesses and Priests Monastery
Located 6-7 storey rock mass to the left of the museum entrance “Convent” is known as. This monastery’s dining hall, 1st floor, a kitchen, a few rooms and destroyed chapel on the 2nd floor can be visited. 3rd floor (that is reached through a tunnel) church cross dome, four columns and three apses. Templon are not common in other churches in Goreme in the main apse. Red ornaments beside the Christ fresco made directly on rock church is seen. The monastery is provided with connecting tunnels between the floors. As in danger to close the tunnels underground city “millstones” is used. Monastery of Priests on the right passages between the floors are closed because of erosion can be seen only a few rooms on the ground floor.That are a Jesus Frescoes made directly on the rock of the Church.
Chapel of St. Basil
It located at the entrance of the Göreme Open Air Museum. There are grave pits separated by columns. Transverse barrel-vaulted nave, a rectangular plan and three apses. The church is dated to the 11th century.
Scenes: Jesus portrait in the main apse, the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus on the front side, on the north wall of St. Theodore, over at the southern wall still fighting with the dragon St. George portrayal, a depiction of St. Demetrius and 2 saints.
Nine domes, four columns, a closed Greek cross plan, three apses. The main entrance to the church, which is to the south, the north can be entered through a tunnel opened. The first ornaments of the Elmalı Church of St. Basil and St. Barbara as in churches crosses and geometric motifs are made directly to the wall with red paint. The church is dated to the middle of the 11th century between 12th century.
Scenes depicted birth, three Magi worship, baptisms, Raising of Lazarus, metamorphism, entry into Jerusalem, the Last Supper, the betrayal, Christ on Golgotha way, Christ on the cross, the burying of Christ, Christ’s descent to hell, women empty tomb, the Ascension of Christ and the saints. Also from the Torah and the hospitality of the Prophet Abraham, burning three Jewish Young men in oven depicted scene.
St. Barbara Chapel
The Chapel is behind the rock block in which the Apple church is located. Cross-shaped, two-column, western, northern and southern cross arms are cradle vaulted, domed center is domed eastern eastern cross arm and the two corners of space. One of the main, there are two side apses.
The motifs are drawn directly on a rock with red paint. Rich geometric motifs on the walls and dome, are mythological animals and military symbols. There is also the motifs on the walls, giving the impression of stone. The church is dated to the second half of the 11th century.
Scenes: Christ Pantocrator in the main apse; on the northern cross arm: St. George fighting the dragon and St. Theodore; In the west arm has a depiction of St. Barbara.
Serpentine (St. Onuphrius) Church
The entrance is from the north. The main place has a longitudinal rectangular, barrel-vaulted and the additional place in the south has a flat ceiling where the tomb. Apse of the left long wall carved church was left uncompleted.
On both sides of the church vault, the pictures of respected saints of Cappadocia can be found. The church is dated to the 11th century.
Scenes: Just across the entrance, Christ holding the Bible in his left hand and next to the church’s patron, east of the vault: St. Onesimus, St. George fighting the dragon and St. Theodore, Helena holding the real cross and her son Konstantin; west of the vault: naked St. Onuphrius with long hair and a palm tree in front of the position next consecrated St. Thomas and St. Basil with a book in his hand.
Pantry / Kitchen / Dining Hall
The three buildings are connected to each other side by side. In the first place, there are holes for storing the provisions are used as a pantry. In the kitchen, there is an oven still used in local village . In the last section, the dining hall. On the left side of the entrance is a stone bench and a desk 40-50 people can eat. On the right side of the table there is a grape must house for squashing grapes.
A curved staircase from the north of the church rectangle, exited the barrel-vaulted narthex. There is a grave south of the narthex. Church cross plan, the arms of the cross vaulted central dome, four columns and three apses. Reason why the church is called Dark, through a small window in the narthex is due to receive very little light. These colors are quite vivid in reason, frescoes. The church is dated to the 11th century and the end of the 12th century.
Scenes: Depicted, gospel, Journey to Bethlehem, the birth, three Magi worship, baptisms, Raising of Lazarus, metamorphism, entry into Jerusalem, the Last Supper, the betrayal, the crucifixion of Jesus, Jesus’ descent to hell, women in front of the empty tomb , the blessing and the Mission of the Apostles, Ascension, the hospitality of the Prophet Abraham, burning of three Jewish young men and saints.
St. Catherine Chapel
In St. Catherine Chapel, the narthex, as well as free cross planned naos is a central dome; and the cross arms are cradle vaulted apse temploned. Nine tombs in the narthex floor, there are two niche graves in the walls. There are figures only in the naos part of the chapel. Pendants decorated with relief geometric ornaments.
Scenes: the Deesis in the apse temploned , it is under the church fathers in medallions, (Gregory, Basil, John Chrysostom), on the southern wall of the northern cross arm at the St. George; against St. Theodore, St. Catherine and other saints.
Syclus scene in the life of Jesus, Abraham’s hospitality Torah scene showing the Peygember, saint and the bani representations are well kept. Christ’s church because of the footprints found at the scene of the Ascension “crackle church” is thought that the name was given. The end of the 12th century church is dated to the 13th century.
Scenes: the birth, the worship of three astrologers, the baptism, the resurrection of Lazarus, the metamorphosis, the entrance to Jerusalem, the betrayal, women in front of the empty tomb, Christ and the saints in heaven.
The region’s oldest known rock church is composed of 4 places: Single Neve Old Church, New Church, The Church below the Old Church, New Church on the north side chapel. The Old Church dated to the beginning of the 10th century, the form of the entrance place of the New Church today, however originally a single nave, barrel vault. During the apse added to the east of New Church was completely destroyed. Scenes vault surface and is located in the upper part of the walls. Christ is divided into panels in the vault covering the life, scenes and follow to start on the right wing to the left wing. New Buckle, transverse rectangular with a simple cradle vault. Four columns linked belt in the eastern wall, a corridor risen behind the columns, after the corridor located in the main apse and two side apses. The cycle of Jesus in the barrel-vaulted nave is mostly red and blue colors in chronological order. Dark blue, Buckle Church is most distinctive feature from other churches.
Goreme Open Air Museum
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